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The journal receives submitted manuscripts via email only. Please submit your research paper in .doc or.pdf format to the submission email: ijpmbs@ejournal.net.
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Compressive and Shear Forces of L5/S1 during Patient Transfer in Different Loads on Hands

Kodai Kitagawa 1,*, Hayato Nodagashira 1, Tadateru Kurosawa 1, Hinako Maeyama 2, and Chikamune Wada 1
1. Mechanical and Medical Engineering Course, Department of Industrial Systems Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hachinohe College, Hachinohe, Japan
2. Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan
*Correspondence: kitagawakitagawa156@gmail.com (K.K.)

Abstract—Patient transfer is the primary cause of lower back pain among caregivers because it requires awkward postures and movements such as twisting, lifting, and lowering with heavy external loads such as body weight.  To prevent lower back pain, the relationship between lumbar loads and external loads from patient weight should be investigated to explore the hazardous limits of external loads during patient transfer. However, this investigation requires frequent trials and heavier loads than the hazardous limit. Therefore, we have used a computational musculoskeletal simulation for patient handling without the actual measured load data of human subjects. A previous study used a musculoskeletal simulation of sit-to-stand assistance motion; however, this simulation did not consider twisting and lowering patient transfer. Hence, this study aims to investigate the relationship between lumbar loads and external loads during patient transfer, including twisting and lowering. The musculoskeletal simulation for this investigation was implemented using the 3D Static Strength Prediction Program. First, the implemented musculoskeletal simulation was validated by comparison with related research using actual measured motion data and an optical motion capture system. Furthermore, the relationship between lumbar loads (compressive and shear forces of L5/S1) and external loads during patient transfer was investigated using a validated musculoskeletal simulation. According to the results, the compressive and shear forces of L5/S1 during patient transfer exceeded the limits of safety when the external load was more than 40 kgf. These findings will contribute to the prevention of lower back pain due to patient transfer. 
Keywords—musculoskeletal simulation, patient transfer, lower back pain, compressive force, shear force, external load

Cite: Kodai Kitagawa, Hayato Nodagashira, Tadateru Kurosawa, Hinako Maeyama, and Chikamune Wada, "Compressive and Shear Forces of L5/S1 during Patient Transfer in Different Loads on Hands," Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 21-25, April 2023. doi: 10.18178/ijpmbs.12.2.21-25

Copyright © 2023 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
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