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The journal receives submitted manuscripts via email only. Please submit your research paper in .doc or.pdf format to the submission email: ijpmbs@ejournal.net.
You’ll be given a paper number if your submission is successful. Your paper then will undergo peer review process, which may take approximately one and a half months under normal circumstances, three tops.
After blind peer review, you will receive the notification letter with the review result of your paper...
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The journal publishes full research papers.[Read More]
 

Etiology and Pathophysiology of Cervical Dystonia

Qiwen Tang, Linhui Ni, Xinxin Xu, Hanze Chen, and Xingyue Hu*
Department of Neurology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Abstract—Although Cervical Dystonia (CD) is regarded as the most common type of focal dystonia, the therapeutic options available for CD are remarkably limited and are unsatisfactory for many patients. Recent functional and clinical studies have made great progress in unraveling the mechanisms underlying CD and other types of dystonia. Much research is still needed; however, the deeper understanding of the etiology of CD is expected to lead to better management of dystonia symptoms and the development of novel therapeutic options. The objective of this review was to summarize the most recent studies examining the pathophysiological features of CD, including genetic mutations, studies about neuronal signaling, and metabolomic studies.

Keywords—cervical dystonia, torticollis, genetic mutations, neuronal signaling, metabolomic studies

Cite:Qiwen Tang, Linhui Ni, Xinxin Xu, Hanze Chen, and Xingyue Hu, "Etiology and Pathophysiology of Cervical Dystonia," International Journal of Pharma Medicine and Biological Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 13-20, January 2023. doi: 10.18178/ijpmbs.12.1.13-20

Copyright © 2023 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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